3. Revising naming of taxiways
Schiphol and its partners are revising the names of specific taxiways. We will implement a revised nomenclature of the taxiway system to improve consistency. This will reduce the likelihood of errors and misunderstandings due to similar/confusing naming conventions.
4. Deviations by ground handling staff
ISMS partners have investigated the reasons why ground personnel on platforms and service roads do not always comply with the rules and regulations. This research demonstrates several factors at play. To improve this situation, we have now implemented measures that were feasible at short notice.
Line markings and pedestrian zones are improved, and lights are recovered. The Schiphol rules are updated and enforced, and the sanctioning time is shortened. There is an integral safety campaign.
The Basistraining Safety & Security has been improved and is an eLearning with an annual recurrent training.
The longer-term safety improvements are currently worked out in a study or implemented.
5. Converging runway use
A missed approach is considered a standard procedure. An aircraft can come into conflict with departing air traffic when it has to execute a missed approach and a converging departure runway is being used. Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) and its partners have been investigating how they can further increase the safety of this procedure.
Timing appears to be an effective measure to reduce the risk of converging approach and take-off operations. By ensuring there is adequate time between these operations we can further decrease the risk of conflicts occurring.
It was decided to implement timing for all converging runways, taking into account the geometry for each of the converging runway combinations. Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) will develop dedicated training for the runway controllers focusing both on conflict prevention and resolution.
7. Trajectory prediction
Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) and its ISMS partners will improve the planning systems to increase predictability of flight profiles to reduce collision risk as part of the European SESAR (Single European Sky ATM research) programme.
9. Improved entry to the Schiphol Terminal Manoeuvring Area (TMA)
The Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) and other partners are going to investigate improved ways for inbound traffic to enter the airspace around Schiphol as part of the airspace restructuring programme in 2023. This would be a next step in developing the operational concept. Doing so would increase the predictability of flight profiles in approaching aircraft to evenly spread traffic load, which would reduce the likelihood of occurrences that affect flight safety.
11. Check pushback procedure online
Schiphol and its partners have developed and published a website that pushback drivers can easily consult for the standard procedures for pushback. This will reduce the risk of safety incidents during pushback manoeuvres. Evaluation of this measure showed even more could be achieved with this new website. A date for implementing this is scheduled.
12. Follow the Greens
Schiphol and Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) are implementing ‘Follow the Greens’. These are a set of sequenced green lights that guides pilots along the assigned taxi route. This visual aid eliminates the need for pilots to consult maps, reduces workload for ground controllers and relieves stress on ground frequencies. It will improve coordination and reduces the likelihood of on-ground safety occurrences and runway incursions.
14. Runway status lights
Schiphol and its partners are exploring the introduction of Runway Status Lights (RWSL). These are series of autonomously-operating red in-pavement lights that warn both pilots and vehicle drivers for other aircraft or vehicles on runways. This visual aid will reduce the likelihood of runway incursions.
15. Building a new pier
Schiphol is building a new pier which will have 8 gates for both wide and narrow-body aircraft. The A-pier is situated in the South-West area of the airport, next to runway 06/24 (Kaagbaan). The new pier will increase gate capacity and relieve gate allocation constraints, reducing the likelihood of on-ground safety occurrences. A date for implementation is rescheduled.
16. Completion dual taxiway system
Schiphol is equipped with a circumferential double-lane taxiway system, except for the current Quebec taxiway. Schiphol and its partners will increase operational predictability, uniformity and ground capacity by doubling the Quebec taxiway. This will reduce the likelihood of on-ground safety occurrences. The double taxiway will be integrated in the clockwise and counter-clockwise routing of the Alfa and Bravo taxiways. The duplication of the Quebec taxiway will be implemented in three phases (1A, 1B and 2). Phase 1A is implemented. The new aircraft bridge is in use now. Implementation of phase 1B is foreseen before 2026. These phases realize the duplication of the taxiway system.
17. Ground handling adverse weather procedure
During adverse weather conditions, like thunderstorms and storm, all ground handlers need a clear procedure. Schiphol and its partners have implemented a standard procedure that increased the predictability and uniformity of ground handling operations in order to reduce the likelihood of on-ground safety occurrences. The procedure has been evaluated in May 2022. Schiphol and its partners are updating this procedure.
22. Sharing ground equipment and vehicles
Schiphol and its partners are conducting a study on the possibility for ground handlers to share their vehicles and equipment. Sharing reduces the movements and the amount of ground handling equipment at aprons, such as stairs and baggage carts, and less material is left on the platforms. This situation reduces the likelihood of safety occurrences on the ground. A pilot is planned from the 1st of October 2022 on, aimed at implementing the equipment pool in stages from this date on.
24. Colocation towing movement and ground control
Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) and Schiphol consider how to move towing movement control to the operation room in the Tower with ground control in order to enhance communication and coordination. This will reduce the likelihood of safety occurrences on the ground. LVNL will take over the task tow control from Schiphol. Implementation is planned before 2027.
27. Last minute runway combination changes and complexity of changes in runway combinations
Runway combination changes that take place at the last minute may cause a disruption to the expected flight handling process, both for pilots and air traffic controllers. Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) and Schiphol have developed measures to further reduce the number of last-minute runway changes, and the associated risks, in order to prevent air and ground safety incidents. For instance, we maintain landing runways when an aircraft is in the Terminal Manoeuvring Area (TMA) Schiphol; in addition, we use two departure runways when needed for a more stable traffic flow. We have also developed measures to improve the predictability of runway use and traffic flows using improved planning systems such as Arrival Management and Collaborative Decision Making. The percentage of last-minute runway combination changes is being monitored closely. The Schiphol Airport Operations Centre (APOC) is in use from June 2021 on.
28. Intersection N2-E6 towards Runway 18L (Aalsmeerbaan)
Aircraft following the routing to the beginning of runway 18L (Aalsmeerbaan) pass intersection N2/E6. At that point, the traffic crosses runway 09 (Buitenveldertbaan).
Schiphol and its partners are developing a runway stop bar in order to prevent aircraft that erroneously turn right from taxiing via the Buitenveldertbaan runway towards departing traffic. This will reduce the risk of runway incursions.
29. Crossing runway 06-24 (Kaagbaan)
When taxiing to or from the Sierra platform, aircraft cross runway 06/24 (Kaagbaan). Schiphol and its partners have researched the ways that this crossing can be made safer to mitigate the risk of possible runway incursions. We also looked at alternative taxi routes to and from the Sierra platform. After research it is decided that aircraft are going to use a new intersection at Sierra 1. Because aircraft do no longer cross at a ‘high energy point’, the risk of runway crossings will decrease.
36. Navigation and surveillance systems in vehicles
Schiphol and its partners are exploring navigation and surveillance systems in vehicles on airside, to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions.
37. Attempted taxiway take-off
On 6 September 2019 an aircraft attempted to take off from a taxiway instead of the Zwanenburg Runway. A number of measures to prevent this from occurring again were immediately implemented. For example, the standard night taxi route has been changed and the location has been identified as a hotspot where pilots and air traffic controllers are required to be extra alert. The markings that guide pilots towards the runway have also been made clearer and new lightings at runway entries, Runway Guard Lights, have been implemented. Also, there was an awareness program for flight crew. An awareness program for ground controllers is being developed.
39. Risk reduction for docking of aircraft
ISMS partners jointly investigated an incident in which a towed aircraft collided with the passenger bridge on a stand. The incident investigation brought a number of potential risk reduction actions to light for further reducing the risk of docking an aircraft, which we investigate further. For example we started a study on the quality of radio communication between Apron Control and tow truck drivers.
40. License to operate
Schiphol and its partners are exploring ways to define and maintain a safety quality standard for all organisations working on airside.
Schiphol is developing operating standards for ground-handlers, aiming to prevent a too heavy workload and negative effects on safety.
8. Navigation technology
The European Union is improving the use of European airspace under the project name ‘Single European Sky ATM Research’, or ‘SESAR’. As part of this project, approaches based on satellite technology (RNAV) are implemented at Schiphol. This allows aircraft to carry out an RNP Approach which involves using three-dimensional GPS navigation on the approach to a runway. As of 7 November 2019, an RNAV approach is possible for four runways at Schiphol. The navigation technology makes flight paths for approaching aircraft more predictable, which will reduce the likelihood of any in-flight safety incidents. A date for evaluation will be planned.
10. Increased upper limit of the Terminal Manoeuvring Area
Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) has raised the upper limit of the Schiphol Terminal Manoeuvring Area (TMA). The TMA is the airspace controlled above and around the airport by air traffic control. By taking these measures, we will utilise a standard method to enable the desired flight profiles. In this way, we will increase the predictability approaching aircrafts’ flight paths, and reduce the complexity of the airspace.
13. Electronic flight strips
Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) has successfully introduced electronic flight progress strips for air traffic controller workers. This digital system reduces the workload for air traffic controllers. In addition, this electronic method enables extra safety nets to be created. It is established that the redesign of work stations in the Control Tower is in place and used.
21. Three ground controllers
During the day, there used to be one or two ground controllers in Tower Centre and one in Tower West near runway 18R/36L (Polderbaan). Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) has added a third ground traffic controller to the crew at the Central Control Tower, depending on air traffic volumes. This reduces the workload of ground controllers and the likelihood of runway incursions and on-ground safety incidents.
23. Redesign of work stations in the Control Tower
Air Traffic Control the Netherlands has redesigned work stations in the Tower. This allows air traffic controllers to work at positions that have the most favourable view over their areas of control, thereby reducing the likelihood of safety occurrences in the air and on the ground. It is established that the redesign of work stations in the Control Tower is implemented.
30. Reduction of marshalled towing risks
ISMS partners jointly investigated a safety incident in 2018, which happened between a towed aircraft and a marshaller in the field. As a result, Schiphol and its partners have already taken a number of further measures, such as tightening up the procedure, to reduce the risks of marshalled towing. The tow drivers are trained and qualified for the new 2021 standard. The manual has been changed with a clear instruction for tow drivers on the operational procedure. We have also reduced the need to marshal towing movements, thus reducing the risk of safety incidents with marshalled tows.
31. Reduced risk of misaligned take-offs
In 2016, an Embraer departed from the edge of the Kaagbaan (runway 24). Directly after the incident, Schiphol extended the taxiway centre line marking towards the runway centre line. The Dutch Safety Board (OVV) published a report in November 2018 about this incident, which included recommendations. As a result of this report, ISMS partners have changed the markings and guidance lines to reduce the risks associated with misaligned takeoffs.
32. Southern departures on runway 18C (Zwanenburgbaan)
ISMS partners jointly investigated a runway incursion in which an aircraft was cleared to enter the Zwanenburgbaan (Runway 18C), while another aircraft had permission to depart to the south. The study brought a number of measures to light which may further reduce the risk of incorrect line-ups. For example, the sight lines from the Control Tower may be improved. We have also conducted further research into the ways of working and operational procedures when taking-off from the Zwanenburgbaan Runway (18C). The measures are being worked out further and are being implemented.
33. Reduce risk of ground collision between two aircraft in pushback
On February 15 and July 9, 2019, two aircraft had a collision during a pushback manoeuvre. ISMS partners jointly investigated these pushback accidents.
The task force has implemented four measures which prevent pushback accidents. The long pushback procedure was refined and the responsibilities of the ground controllers and the pushback drivers were clarified. There are fixed pushback and release points on taxiway Alpha and for non-standard pushback clearances. A date for evaluation will be planned.
34. Uniform platform extension from 9 to 12 parking positions
The Uniform platform was expanded from 5 to 9 parking spaces by Schiphol and its partners. Three additional parking spaces have been created for wide body aircraft. This reduces bottlenecks in parking spot allocation and relieves gate planning, which thereby reduces the risk of on-ground safety incidents. In addition, aircraft will be serviced at the total of 12 parking spots. That means they will cross the Aalsmeerbaan Runway (18L/36R) less frequently, thereby reducing the risk of runway incursions.
35. Safety net for take-off and landing from a runway which is not in use.
Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) has created an extra safety net so that air traffic controllers receive a digital warning if they want to use a runway that is not currently in use. An additional warning will follow if the air traffic controller then gives permission to take off or land on that runway. These warnings prevent planes from taking off or landing on runways that are not in use.
1. Uniform platform extension from 5 to 9 parking positions
The Uniform platform was expanded from 5 to 9 parking spaces by Schiphol and its partners in order to create more parking spots for wide body aircraft.
The evaluation established that this has reduced the number of tows from and to Schiphol-Oost, leading to less crossings of the Aalsmeerbaan (18L/36R) Runway and the Schiphol-Oostbaan (04/22) Runway.
2. Improved co-ordination between runway controller and tower assistant
Co-ordination between the runway controller and tower assistant is an explicit part of new employee training. Furthermore, co-ordination is included in annually-recurring training as well. This reduces the likelihood of runway incursions. The evaluation established that these modifications are implemented and used correctly.
6. Fixed connection to fuel system
Schiphol and its partners introduce a fixed connection to the fuel system at the Delta and Echo buffer, which reduces the number of movements of tank trucks to these positions. This is likely to reduce the risk of on-ground safety occurrences. The evaluation established that this system is in place and used for all refuelling at the Delta and Echo buffer. Tank truck movements to these positions are thus no longer necessary.
18. “Runway occupied” strip
Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) is now using a ‘runway occupied’ strip in their procedures in both Tower Centre and Tower West whenever a runway is occupied by a bird control or another vehicle. This working procedure was introduced to prevent runway incursions. The evaluation established that the ‘runway occupied’ strip functions adequately and has helped to reduce runway incursions.
19. Double guidance lines to the Bravo taxiway
Schiphol and its partners have applied additional guidance lines at the G/H-pier area to the Bravo taxiway. This will enable narrow-body aircraft to pass each other safely when taxiing from and to the G/H-pier. This reduces complexity and reduces the likelihood of on-ground safety occurrences. The evaluation established that the double guidance lines are in place and used when possible and beneficial (about 90% of the time). This resulted in less congestion on the taxiways and at the G-H pier area, and less workload for ground control.
20. Double guidance lines to the Alpha taxiway
Schiphol and its partners have applied additional guidance lines at the G/H-pier area to the Alfa taxiway. This will enable narrow-body aircraft to pass each other safely while taxiing from and to the G/H-pier. This reduces complexity and reduces the likelihood of on-ground safety occurrences. The evaluation established that the double guidance lines are in place and used when possible and beneficial (about 90% of the time). This resulted in less congestion on the taxiways and at the G-H pier area, and less workload for ground control.
25. Routing between the Kilo platform and runway 22 (Schiphol-Oostbaan)
Schiphol and Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) have created an unambiguous traffic flow to and from the Kilo platform at Schiphol East. This is effectuated by introducing a one-way traffic system and a safer routing for entering and leaving the Kilo platform. The evaluation established that this measure has helped to decrease runway incursions at this location.
26. One-way traffic on the Alpha and Bravo taxiways
Schiphol and Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) have applied standard practices for taxiing and towing on the Alfa and Bravo taxiways by introducing a one-way traffic system. The driving direction on the Alfa runway is now clockwise and the Bravo runway is anticlockwise. These standard routes will improve predictability of taxiing and towing movements, in order to reduce the likelihood of on-ground safety occurrences. The evaluation established that the standard routing is used, except where circumstances require another solution, e.g., during construction work. The objective of improving the predictability is met.